※ 引述《poorsin (貧窮正弦波)》之銘言：
:美國一年一度的「黑人歷史月」(Black History Month)又到了，除了美國以外，英國、
:2018年02月14日 07:54 中時電子報 盧品青
SAT是全國性質的考試 如果直接因為種族差異就在原始分數上面刪改 篤定引起軒然大波
實際上的情形是原始總分沒有被更動, 但招生的時候各校會因為彼此需求不同, 用不同的
標準去衡量不同種族之間的分數曲線. 亞裔在學業方面的表現, 以平均值而言, 明顯較其
種族優秀, 所以如果每個學校都只用原始分數當指標, 會嚴重影響其餘種族受到高等教育
的機會均等. 但就常春藤(Ivy League)收學生的標準, 由於他們收的是菁英中的菁英, 用
這篇文章是我用 Asian SAT score deduction為關鍵字搜尋到的第二篇文章
Los Angeles Times, 2015 Feb. 21 https://goo.gl/nul4XM
In a windowless classroom at an Arcadia tutoring center, parents crammed into
child-sized desks and dug through their pockets and purses for pens as Ann Lee
launches a PowerPoint presentation.
在Arcadia教育中心的一個沒有窗戶的教室裡, 家長們擠在兒童課桌椅上, 從他們的口袋和
Her primer on college admissions begins with the basics: application deadlines,
the relative virtues of the SAT versus the ACT and how many Advanced Placement
tests to take.
申請期限, SAT跟ACT這兩種考試的差別和優劣, 以及學生到底要參加多少AP(大學先修課程
註: AP比一般高中的課程還要難, 而學生通過AP考試可以在大學抵免相對應的學分.
Then she eases into a potentially incendiary topic — one that many counselors
like her have learned they cannot avoid.
“Let's talk about Asians,” she says.
Lee's next slide shows three columns of numbers from a Princeton University
study that tried to measure how race and ethnicity affect admissions by using
SAT scores as a benchmark. It uses the term “bonus” to describe how many
extra SAT points an applicant's race is worth. She points to the first column.
這篇研究裡使用了bonus(加成)的字眼來比喻, 對學校而言, 考生的種族在計分時給了多
African Americans received a “bonus” of 230 points, Lee says.
She points to the second column.
“Hispanics received a bonus of 185 points.”
The last column draws gasps.
Asian Americans, Lee says, are penalized by 50 points — in other words, they
had to do that much better to win admission.
身為亞裔美人, 你的成績會以少50分被看待, 意即你必須在考試方面表現的明顯更加
“Do Asians need higher test scores? Is it harder for Asians to get into
college? The answer is yes,” Lee says.
“Zenme keyi,” one mother hisses in Chinese. How can this be possible?
College admission season ignites deep anxieties for Asian American
families, who spend more than any other demographic on education.
At elite universities across the U.S., Asian Americans form a
larger share of the student body than they do of the population as
a whole. And increasingly they have turned against affirmative
action policies that could alter those ratios, and accuse
admissions committees of discriminating against Asian American
他部分. 在美國大多數的菁英大學裡, 亞裔學生佔的比例遠超過亞裔人口在美國總人口
裡的比例. 而他們更團結起來對抗有可能改變現狀的政策, 並指控入學委員會歧視亞裔
That perspective has pitted them against advocates for diversity:
More college berths for Asian American students mean fewer for
black and Latino students, who are statistically underrepresented
at top universities.
But in the San Gabriel Valley's hyper-competitive ethnic Asian
communities, arguments for diversity can sometimes fall on deaf
ears. For immigrant parents raised in Asia's all-or-nothing test
cultures, a good education is not just a measure of success —
it's a matter of survival. They see academic achievement as a
moral virtue, and families organize their lives around their
child's education, moving to the best school districts and paying
for tutoring and tennis lessons. An acceptance letter from a
prestigious college is often the only acceptable return on an
investment that stretches over decades.
對亞裔家庭而言, 學業上的進展基本上被視為一種核心價值. 很多家庭根本就把他們的
Lee is the co-founder of HS2 Academy, a college prep business that
assumes that racial bias is a fact of college admissions and
counsels students accordingly. At 10 centers across the state, the
academy's counselors teach countermeasures to Asian American
applicants. The goal, Lee says, is to help prospective college
students avoid coming off like another “cookie-cutter Asian.”
“Everyone is in orchestra and plays piano,” Lee says. “Everyone
plays tennis. Everyone wants to be a doctor, and write about
immigrating to America. You can't get in with these cliche
Like a lot of students at Arcadia High School, Yue Liang plans to
apply to University of California campuses and major in
engineering — or if her mother wins that argument, pre-med. She
excels at math, takes multiple AP courses and volunteers, as does
nearly everyone she knows.
Being of Asian descent, the junior says, is “a disadvantage.”
The problem, she says, is in the numbers.
Asian families flock to the San Gabriel Valley's school districts
because they have some of the highest Academic Performance Index
scores in the state. But with hundreds of top-performing students
at each high school, focusing on a small set of elite
institutions, it's easy to get lost in the crowd.
Of the school's 4,000 students, nearly 3,000 are of Asian descent,
and like Yue are willing to do whatever it takes to gain entrance
to a prestigious university. They will study until they can't
remember how to have fun and stuff their schedules with
extracurriculars. But there's an important part of their college
applications that they can't improve as easily as an SAT score:
In the San Gabriel Valley, where aspirationally named tutoring
centers such as Little Harvard and Ivy League cluster within
walking distance of high schools, many of them priced more cheaply
than a baby-sitter, it didn't take long for some centers to
respond to students' and parents' fears of being edged out of a
top school because of some intangible missing quality.
Helping Asian American students, many of whom lead similar lives,
requires the embrace of some stereotypes, says Crystal Zell, HS2's
assistant director of counseling. They are good at math and bad
at writing and aspire to be doctors, engineers or bankers,
according to the cliches. She works with her students to identify
what's unique about them — and most of the time, that's not their
career ambitions or their ethnicity.
“Everyone comes in wanting the same thing,” Zell said. “But
that's because they don't know about anything else.”
If a student wants to be an engineer, she makes sure to show other
options. She sends affluent students to volunteer in poor
neighborhoods. Branch out from tennis, or chess club, or
taekwondo, she tells them. Learn a language other than Chinese.
Avoid writing your essay about your parents' journey to America.
Instead of just handing students a violin or a piano and saying
pick one, Zell says, HS2 offers them a buffet of interests and
hobbies, encouraging students to pick something that excites them.
Lawrence Leonn, 16, is grateful for the help. He doesn't think
race or ethnicity should matter, but he believes it will.
“I don't want to be racist or anything,” Lawrence said. “
Everyone works hard and struggles. But there's this feeling that
it's going to be harder for us.”
Complaints about bias in college admissions have persisted since
at least the 1920s, when a Harvard University president tried to
cap the number of Jewish students. In November, a group called
Students for Fair Admissions filed a suit against Harvard
University for admissions policies that allegedly discriminate
against Asian Americans. The group cited the 2004 Princeton study
and other sources that offer statistics about Asian Americans'
這篇文中引用的Princeton study也在2014年11月的訴訟中被引用, 指稱大學入學政策
At the University of Texas at Austin, an affirmative action policy
that allows admissions committees to consider the race of
prospective applicants has been argued all the way to the Supreme
Court. (The policies were upheld by a lower court, but that
court's decision was voided by the Supreme Court. Another court
upheld the policies and another appeal is pending.)
Those who defend “holistic” admissions policies insist that
considering a broader range of variables ensures that all
applicants are judged fairly. And the Princeton study Lee refers
to has been widely criticized by academics who argue that it
relies too heavily on grades and test scores to draw conclusions
about racial bias and that the data the study uses are too old to
Ann Lee引用的這篇Princeton Study被很多學者批評：
Still, anxiety over racial admissions rates is peaking as
cash-crunched public universities increasingly favor high-paying
out-of-state and foreign students at the expense of local
applicants of every ethnicity. A 2014 bill that would have asked
voters to consider restoring race as a factor in admissions to
public California colleges and universities sparked multiple
public protests and scathing editorials in Chinese newspapers. The
bill, Senate Constitutional Amendment 5, was shelved last year.
Lee says that she usually tries to at least mention arguments in
favor of diversity at her free college seminars. She mentions how
the black student population at UCLA has declined precipitously
and how student bodies at elite universities probably shouldn't be
100% of Asian descent. When she looks to see the response, she
sees mostly slowly shaking heads.
“It's really hard for me to explain diversity to parents whose
only goal is getting their son into Harvard,” Lee says.
That same ethic causes parents and students to agonize over which
box, if any, to check on the race and nationality section of the
application. One parent asked Zell whether it would help to
legally change the family name to something more Western-sounding.
Last year, a rumor that Harvard University would stop accepting
any more Asian American students from San Marino High School
spread like a trending hashtag.
Mollie Beckler, a counselor at San Marino High School, says that
Harvard never imposed such a rule. School counselors are
continually trying to dispel myths like these, she says, if only
in hopes of slightly lowering the huge stress students shoulder
because of their intense focus on elite schools.
“The feeling of failure they get from trying to reach such high
standards,” she said, “is very concerning to us in the
Only a few of the San Gabriel Valley's tutoring centers confront
the ethnic admissions issue head-on.
Jamie Aviles, a counselor at the ACI Institute, doesn't teach ways
to overcome perceived racial bias, she says. But she and many
other counselors do agree on at least one thing.
As Aviles puts it: “It sucks to be a kid in the San Gabriel
總歸而言, 這篇報導引用的是2015年LA times的報導, 而LA times的報導引用的paper
已經是2004年的study. 而分數的加減只是該篇paper的估計值, 並非實際每所學校都採
對, 我說的就是中時電子報, 盧品青
※ 發信站: 批踢踢實業坊(ptt.cc), 來自: 188.8.131.52
※ PTT 文章網址: https://www.ptt.cc/bbs/NBA/M.1518575482.A.EF0.html
應該這樣講 我覺得LA times這篇文章點出的並不只有歧視
Ann Lee本身有提出一些在美國教育看到的現象 而這些現象的確是不應該被忽略的
※ 編輯: kikijuice (184.108.40.206), 02/14/2018 11:41:10